The Holden Astra is a compact auto which was advertised by Holden, the Australian subsidiary of General Motors.
The authentic Holden Astra, introduced inside August 1984 because the LB series became a badge designed Nissan Pulsar.
The just engine accessible
Other Holden Astra Car Repair Manuals click here NEW hardback UK guide covering Holden Astra AH (Vauxhall/ Opel) four-stroke diesel 2004 - 2008 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers: Hatchback Sport Hatch Estate with Turbo-four-stroke diesel motors including special/limited editions. motors Covered: 1.3 liter (1248 cubic centimetre ) 4 piston turbo-four-stroke diesel 1.7 liter (1686 cubic centimetre ) 4 piston turbo-four-stroke diesel 1 point 9 liter (1910 cubic centimetre ) 4 piston turbo-four-stroke diesel Does NOT cover TwinTop models or 'Easytronic' gearbox. Inside this guide you'll find: scheduled upkeep tune-up procedures engine repair cooling plus heating air-conditioning gas plus exhaust air pollution control ignition braking program springs plus shock absorbers plus Rack plus pinion electric systems plus electric schematics. Haynes plus illustrations guide we by each job from standard repair plus troubleshooting with complete teardown rebuild. About the Holden Astra The Holden Astra serves because a compact automobile which has been advertised by Holden the Australian subsidiary of General Motors. Spanning five decades the link here
1987 - 1989 4 piston motors covered: ● 1.6 Litre ● 1.8 Litre Contents: ● Introduction ● Car Identification General Specifications ● General Information ● Lubrication maintenance ● Wheels rubber tyres ● engine Tune-Up ● Roadside Trouble Shooting ● motor ● Cooling Heating Systems ● Fuel plus engine Management ● Emission Control ● Clutch ● Manual Transaxle Drive Shafts ● Automatic Transaxle ● Rack plus pinion ● Power Rack plus pinion ● Front Suspension ● Rear Suspension ● braking system ● wiring ● Wiring Diagrams ● Body Covers everything you ought to learn step-by-step procedures hundreds of photos plus illustrations routine upkeep wiring diagrams repairs plus overhauls plus what tools with purchase. Gregory's manuals are Overhead Cam multi-point Electronic Fuel Injection. Just Sold nearby inside Japan. Was utilized inside Serie plus Lucino Japanese Variants (576 yielded total). Featured compression ratio of 11.5:1 264 length @ 1one point 4 mm lift camshafts distinctive valve springs DET vales portwork piston oil further data
Petrol 2004 - 2008 Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers: Hatchback Sport Hatch Estate with Petrol motors including special/limited editions introduced inside Australia because the Holden Astra AH. motors Covered: 1.4 litre (1364 cubic centimetre ) petrol 1.6 litre (1598 cubic centimetre ) petrol 1.8 litre (1796 cubic centimetre ) petrol Does NOT cover 1.6 litre or 2.0 litre turbo motors 1.6 litre VVT engine or double gas models. gearboxs Covered: Kinds F13 (1.4-litre motor) plus F17+ (1.6- plus 1.8-litre motors) 5-speed manual Type AF17 4 geared automatic Kinds F13 MTA (1.4-litre) plus F17+ MTA (1.6- plus 1-8-litre) 5-speed Easytronic NOTE: Just upkeep change easy upkeep jobs and treatment plus installation are described for the gearboxs. Inside this guide you'll find: scheduled upkeep tune-up procedures engine repair cooling plus heating airconditioner repair bills. Step-by-step procedures plus illustrations guide we by each job from simple repair plus troubleshooting with complete teardown rebuild. About the Holden Astra The Holden Astra serves because a compact automobile which has been advertised by Holden the Australian subsidiary of click on
Service Repair Manual covers models: Holden Astra Hatchback Sedan plus Wagon plus Zafira MPV models with Petrol motors including specialized / limited editions. ● DOES NOT cover bi-fuel models 1.6 L "Twinport" or 2.0 L turbo motors coupe or convertible. ● DOES NOT cover AH series introduced Sept 2004. Petrol motors Covered: ● 1 point 4 liter (1389cc) Dual Overhead Cam - X14XE Z14XE ● 1.6 liter (1598cc) Single Over Head Camshaft - X16SZR (single point injection) ● 1.6 liter (1598cc) Single Over Head Camshaft - Z16SE (multi-point injection) ● 1.6 liter (1598cc) Dual Overhead Cam - X16XEL Z16XE ● 1.8 liter (1796cc) Dual Overhead Cam - X18XE1 Z18XE Z18XEL ● 2.0 liter (1998cc) Dual Overhead Cam - X20XEV ● 2.2 liter (2198cc) Dual Overhead Cam - Z22SE gearboxs described: ● F13 5-speed guide (1 point four-liter plus (2.0-liter motors) ● AF22 4 geared automatic (2.2-liter motors) Contents: ● Living with The Holden Astra/Zafira ● Roadside Repairs ● Weekly Checks ● Lubricants Fluids ● Tyre Pressures ● Routine Maintenance Service ● 1 point 4 1.6 1.8 2.0 liter Dual click
Service Repair Manual UK guide covering the Opel/Vauxhall Astra 1991 - 1998 available inside Australia from August 1996 because the Holden "TR" series Astra. The motors covered are: Saloon Hatchback Estate plus Van Including Special/Limited Editions 1991 - 1998. motors Covered: 1.4 L (1389 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 4 piston petrol (engine codes 14NV 14SE C14NZ X14NZ C14SE) 1.4 L (1389 cubic centimetre ) DOHC 4 piston petrol (engine code X14XE "Ecotec") 1.6 L (1598 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 4 piston petrol (engine codes C16NZ C16SE X16SZ X16SZR) 1.6 L (1598 cubic centimetre ) DOHC 4 piston petrol (engine code X16XEL "Ecotec") 1.8 L (1796 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 4 piston petrol (engine code C18NZ) 1.8 L (1796 cubic centimetre ) DOHC 4 piston petrol (engine codes C18XE C18XEL "Ecotec" X18XE "Ecotec") 2.0 L (1998 cubic centimetre ) SOHC 4 piston petrol (engine code C20NE) 2.0 approach may be inside region because which time with 4th plus fifth decades established inside 1998 plus 2004 respectively. During August TWO THOUSAND AND NINE Holden discontinued the Astra plus changed it when utilizing the Cruze introduced 2 months before. Third generation (TR; 1995-1998): In more data
Gregorys Other Holden Astra Car Repair Manuals click here NEW paperback Holden Astra Zafira TS TT 1998 - 2005 Gregorys Owners Service Repair Manual covers Sedan Hatchback Wagon. Models Covered: ● Astra TS Series 1998 - 2005 ● Zafira TT Series 2001 - 2005 Engines Covered: ● 1 point 4 litre "X14XE Z14XE" ● 1.6 litre "X16XL Z16XE" ● 1.8 litre "X18XE1 Z18XE Z18XEL" ● 2.0 litre "X20XEV" ● 2.2 litre "Z22SE" Contents: ● Living With The Holden Astra / Zafira ● Roadside Repairs ● Weekly Checks ● Lubricants plus Fluids ● Routine Maintenance plus Servicing ● Repairs plus Overhaul ● Engines - 1 point 4 litre 1.6 litre 1.8 litre 2.0 litre DOHC ● Engine - 2.2 litre DOHC ● Engine Removal plus Overhaul Procedures ● Cooling Heating plus Air Conditioning ● Fuel plus Exhaust Systems Holden yielded Olympic Editions of both City of London plus CD grades edition available throughout 2000 included "Sydney 2000" Olympic badging. Equipe: was based found on the Astra City however added 15-inch alloy wheels and alternative combinations of additional attributes including cruise control click here.....
schematics.Haynes workshop plus service manuals are income saving on bills for repair plus repair. Step-by-step procedures plus illustrations guide we by each job from simple upkeep plus troubleshooting with complete teardown rebuild. Information about Repair plus Service Manuals Note which repair manuals are usually yielded for models available inside a certain nation. Differences inside specification will exist between models available inside different nations plus goods like installed motors could vary. Please check which the guide may cover the model before buy plus should you want more detail please contact you here.. more info
Owners Service Repair Manual: Australian models just.Inside this guide you'll find: scheduled upkeep routine engine tuning engine repair cooling plus heating air-conditioning gas plus exhaust air pollution control ignition brakes springs plus shock absorbers plus Rack plus pinion wirings plus electric schematics.Haynes repair manuals may help save you income about bills for repair plus repair. Step-by-step procedures plus illustrations provide we guidance for each task from simple repair plus troubleshooting with complete teardown rebuild. Information about Repair plus Service Manuals Note which repair manuals are usually yielded for models available inside a certain nation. Differences inside specification will exist between models available inside different nations plus products including installed motors will vary. Please check which the guide may cover a model before buy plus should you want more detail please contact you here.. come here
routine upkeep electric schematics repairs plus overhauls plus what tools with purchase. Gregorys manuals are based about an actual car disassembly plus are researched plus created by mechanics with big experience.Gregorys workshop manuals are yielded for the Australian marketplace. These car requirements will fluctuate from those available inside additional nations. Please be aware of these potential variations before utilizing the information contained in.Published by Gregorys (Gregorys) Information about Repair plus Service Manuals Note which repair manuals are usually yielded for models available inside a specific nation. Differences inside specification may exist between models available inside different nations plus goods like installed machines will vary. Please check which the guide can cover the model before buy plus in the event you want more detail please contact you here.. information
The Holden Astra is a compact auto which was advertised by Holden, the Australian subsidiary of General Motors. Spanning five decades, the authentic, Australia-only Astra of 1984 became a derivative of the locally-produced Nissan Pulsar, because was the 1987 Astra. It was succeeded by the Holden Nova inside 1989another distinctive with Australia model line, Holden inside 1995 reintroduced the Astra for the New Zealand marketplace. This was just a badge technology exercise, because the Opel Astra, from that the 3rd generation Holden Astra was based, had been available there because 1993. The following year, 1996, Holden discontinued the Nova line inside favour of the Opel-based Holden Astra. This approach has been inside region since that time, with 4th plus fifth decades established inside 1998 plus 2004 respectively. During August 2009 Holden discontinued the Astra plus changed it with all the Cruze, introduced 2 months before.
The authentic Holden Astra, introduced inside August 1984 because the LB series became a badge designed Nissan Pulsar. The Pulsar, a Japanese crafted model, available alongside the special with Australia Astra line-up. The Pulsar for Australia was essembled inside Clayton, Victoria; yet, for the Astra the body panels were pushed at Holden's Elizabeth, South Australia center. Unlike its Nissan counterpart, the Astra was just available because a five-door hatchback, with all the three-door hatchback plus four-door sedan body designs omitted within the range due with worries they might overlap with Nissan's own Pulsar range. But, Holden's continuation of the Gemini sedan range was the closest similar of the inside the range.
The just engine accessible became a Nissan-designed 1.5 litre engine, nearby produced, this engine yielded 52 kilowatts plus 115 newton metres of torque. Transmission choices were a five-speed guide or perhaps a three-speed automatic.
Compared with the N12 Pulsar, the Astra LB sported a distinctive grille, the function of Australian stylist Paul Beranger housing the Holden lion insignia inside the centre, Additionally special were Astra-only tail lights, badging plus decals.
A revised LC model was introduced inside April 1986. Unleaded-fuel specifications uprated the engine displacement with 1.6 litres, energy by 0.6 kilowatts plus torque with 124 newton metres. Model plus trim changes were equally a piece of the update, including a new grille insert, as well as the addition of a SL model placed under the SL/X plus SL/E degrees.
The Used Car Safety Ratings, published inside 2008 by Monash University, found which initially generation Astras give a "greatly worse than average" amount of resident protection security inside the event of a accident.
Two trim degrees, the SL/X as well as the SL/E were available inside the LB Astra series, though a standard SL model arrived inside 1986 with all the LC upgrade.
SL: entry-level model accessible on the LC's introduction.
SL/X: introduced with LB series showcased cloth trim, a digital clock along with a combined radio recipient plus Compact Cassette player.
SL/E: added alloy wheels amidst additional attributes with the equipment list. But, the LC update saw the SL/E specification downgraded from alloy wheels with steel wheels with plastic wheel covers.
For the 2nd generation LD Astra, the Nissan Pulsar was again selected because the basis, this time utilizing the newest N13 series. Unlike before, the LD was the happen of the right joint venture development programme. That is, Nissan offered the bodywork plus Holden provided powertrains for fitment inside both applications. Launched concurrently inside July 1987, both the LD Astra plus N13 Pulsar were available inside four-door sedan plus five-door hatchback body designs. Outside of Australia though, three-door hatchback plus station wagon body variants of the Nissan were moreover accessible.
Both 1.6; 135 newton metres) plus 1.8 litre; 151 newton metres) displacements of Holden's Family II engine were available inside the Astra-Pulsar models. Badged because "1.6-" plus "1.8 injection", respectively, the expression injection denoted the utilisation of gas injection. In July 1989, all associations with Nissan were severed along with a modern agreement between Toyota was created. This relationship, termed as the United Australian Automobile Industries became a continuation of the Austraian Government's Button Plan which began with Nissan. Nissan continued with employ the Holden motors till 1991 before substituting their N13 Pulsar line with all the N14, whilst simultaneously entering a modern model sharing alliance with Ford.
The Used Car Safety Ratings evaluation from 2008 found which LD series Astras give a "worse than average" amount of resident security inside the event of a accident.
Of the 3 trim requirements available, the SLX plus SLE nameplates no longer showcased the "/" signal, because inside SL/X. Besides this anomaly, the LD range mirrored which of the LC Astra:
SL: entry-level variant, accessible just because five-door hatchback, featuring the five-speed guide transmission plus 1.6 litre engine combination. The brake setup for the LD series Astra in almost any specification became a disc/drum setup, while the equal Australian Pulsars had four-wheel disk brakes because standard.
SLX: was the 2nd tier variant fitted with all the 1.8 litre engine inside combined with either a five-speed guide or three-speed automatic transmission. The SLX additionally showcased full plastic wheel trims, because opposed with the steel centre hubcap fitted with the SL.
SLE: was the greatest deluxe level about provide was the greatest specification available, accessible just because an automatic 1.8 litre. The SLE was equal with Pulsar's GXE specification.
HSV Astra SV1800: became a Holden Special Vehicles tuned variation of the LD Astra. Introduced inside September 1988, almost all of the 65 or thus examples employed the sedan body fashion. Upgrades within the standard Astra were limited with aesthetic plus suspension changes, with both "Stage 1" plus "Stage 2" suspension setups available.
In 1995, Holden started marketing the Astra again inside the New Zealand marketplace because a four-door sedan plus five-door hatchback. Imported from Vauxhall's Ellesmere Port plant inside Cheshire, England, this third-generation Astra model well-known as the TR series, was extracted within the Opel Astra F inside Germany; Opel being another General Motors subsidiary. But, this was simply a rebadging of the existing Opel model that has been advertised inside New Zealand because 1993 because the Opel Astra.
Holden inside Australia didn't recommence the marketing of Astras till September 1996, following the dissolution of Australian Government Button vehicle program. This lead to the collapse of UAAI, the Holden-Toyota alliance, plus because outcome Holden opted with return with advertising rebadged General Motors cars. Between 1989 plus 1996, the Astra's character was satisfied by the Nova, Holden's adaptation of Toyota's Corolla. During this period of badge technology inside Australia, General Motors New Zealand had employed Opel because 1 of its principal marques alongside Holden plus Isuzu. Because the Button program or regional similar not existed inside New Zealand, the 2 initial decades of Holden Astra were therefore not obtainable in which marketplace.
Like the 2 past decades, TR Astras were evaluated inside the 2008 Used Car Safety Ratings, plus shown with offer an "average" amount of security.
City: was the introductory model featuring a driver's airbag, central locking, plus energy steering. The engine plus transmission combination consisted of the 1.6 litre engine; 135 newton metres) with a five-speed guide.
GL: editions were fitted with front fog lights, electrical side mirrors along with a tachometer over the City, and showcased a 1.8 litre engine; 165 newton metres) with all the way of either guide or automatic transmission.
GSi: was the stylish hatchback-only entrant, featuring double airbags, alloy wheels, sports inside trim plus suspension, and a 2.0 litre engine; 188 newton metres) combined with a five-speed guide.
In September 1998, the Astra was changed again with a German Opel-engineered, Belgium-built variation. Known because the TS Astra, it was loaded with either a 90-kilowatt 1.8- or perhaps a 2.2-litre petrol engine plus was available inside City, CD, CDXi, the SXi plus SRi requirements. The SRi was three-door hatchback just, as well as the standard Astra was just accessible with a 1.8-litre litre 16-valve engine. The TS Astra was synonymous with the Chevrolet Astra of the South American marketplace, though just the latter received the sharper facelift the European plus Australian versions retained the softer curves of the authentic body. Models with a 5-stud wheel pattern have the ABS choice factory-installed.
The TS Astra model change followed which of the Opel Astra G range, including the sedan, hatchback plus convertible. But, the Coupé by Bertone wasn't available with a Holden badge. The drivetrain was identical with alternative vehicles inside inside the Astra lineup, plus as a result, wasn't a bona-fide sports automobile. Like the Astra A, the Astra B was accessible because a wagon inside New Zealand, yet not Australia. In 2003, a 147-kilowatt 2.0-litre Turbo engine became accessible. The standard Astra was just accessible with a 1.8-litre 16-valve engine, plus lived about till 2005 because the Holden Astra Classic, alongside the hot model. The strategy behind this was for Holden with stay competitive inside the marketplace till the cheaper Viva model was introduced.
In accordance with the Monash University's 2008 update with the Used Car Safety Ratings, TS Astra models were rated "much better than average" inside the field of crash protection security.
City: was the many standard TS model, with a six-speaker sound program, double airbags, disk brakes, 1.8-litre Z18XE engine, adjustable headlamps, plus triple info show.
SXi: based about "City", however, used the coupe body design, added front fog lights plus sports trim. Optional attributes included, a CD player, ABS brakes, alloy wheels, air conditioner, along with a back spoiler.
CD: included "City" qualities, plus: 15-inch alloy wheels, a CD Player, ABS brakes, traction control, air conditioner, electronic mirrors, plus force windows. Optional equipment accessible were: front fog lights, 16-inch alloy wheels, cruise control, along with a back spoiler.
SRi: carried the same equipment because the "SXi", however was based found on the "CD" variant.
CDX: added: cruise control, front fog lights, climate control air conditioner, chrome trim about dials, side airbags, leather upholstery, along with a heavier LCD show.
Olympic Edition: Holden yielded Olympic Editions of both the City plus CD grades edition available throughout 2000, included "Sydney 2000" Olympic badging.
Equipe: was based found on the Astra City, however added 15-inch alloy wheels plus different combinations of additional attributes including cruise control, force windows, electrical side-view mirrors, fog lights plus back spoiler.
The fifth generation AH Astra, based found on the Delta-platformed Opel Astra H came inside November 2004 because a five-door hatchback just, produced inside Belgium, marketing alongside a today Polish-built Astra TS sedan, hatchback plus convertible . The sedan plus hatchback TS Astra models carried "Astra Classic" badges, yet were finally dropped inside late 2005, changed by the Holden Viva, a rebadged Daewoo Lacetti. Between 2003 plus 2004, the Lacetti was advertised inside Australia because a Daewoo before Holden withdrew the brand from Australia due with unsustainable sales.
Like the past generation, the AH series was found with delivers a "much better than average" amount of protection based on the 2008 Used Car Safety Ratings. At launch, AH Astras came with front- plus side-impact airbags because standard inclusions, permitting the Astra with get the four-star ANCAP crash protection rating. Higher-specified models were capable with achieve the full five-stars due with the addition of standard protection equipment.
Holden suspended importation of the Astra about 20 April 2009, citing currency fluctuations plus commodity cost issues. Holden's import cessation, that lead to no Astras arriving throughout June plus July 2009, coincided with all the introduction of the Holden Cruze, reported with function as the direct substitution for the Holden Viva. On 31 August 2009, Holden confirmed which the cessation of Astra imports might stay of the lasting basis, without intention of further imports of either the then present AH series or the upcoming generation vehicle. Holden reported their tiny vehicle efforts will be focused found on the Cruze.
Model year changes
MY05: the AH range extended inside August 2005 with all the launch of the Astra station wagon.
MY06.5: revisions from June 2006 added head-protecting side curtain airbags because standard equipment for the CDX. Additionally introduced was the turbodiesel hatchback, badged CDTi. Two versions of the diesel were offered: a 1.9 litre adaptation with 110 kilowatts teamed with a six-speed guide transmission, along with a six-speed automatic model with an 88-kilowatt adaptation of the same engine. This had been a initial for the Astra inside Australia, yet not New Zealand where the Astra TS had earlier been available with a 1.7 litre turbodiesel.
MY07: models appeared inside January 2007, coinciding with all the launch of the Astra SRi plus Twin Top convertible. Both releases came with a 2.2 litre petrol engine producing 110 kilowatts, accessible with all the six-speed guide or four-speed automatic.
MY07.5: inside April 2007 the Astra line-up received a facelift including tweaked front grille, lights about all models, unique 16 inch alloy shape for CDX plus CDTi models, plus black tinted headlamps for sport variants. The 1.8 litre petrol engine equally benefited from a energy upgrade from 90 kilowatts with 103 kilowattsan heighten of 11 %. The 2.2 litre machines obtainable in the SRi, plus Twin Top stayed the same, because did the 2.0L turbo inside the Astra SRi Turbo
MY08: changes from October 2007 saw the deletion of the five-door SRi, exiting just the SRi coupé, as well as the Twin Top with all the 2.2 litre engine.
MY08.5: minor, non-cosmetic update from May 2008 onwards. MY08.5 Astras received electronic stability control because standard fitment over the whole lineup. ESC was earlier limited with SRi plus CDTi variants. This series equally marked the return of the five-door SRi, though it was today standard with all the 1.8 because opposed with the 2.2 litre petrol engine earlier fitted. This engine change furthermore affected the coupé SRi variant, nevertheless not the Twin Top. The Astra wagon range was furthermore extended with include the diesel engine way accessible absolutely found on the hatchback. Although just available with an automatic transmission, the diesel CDTi wagon marked the return of the Astra wagon with the New Zealand marketplace following its discontinuation following the TS series.
MY09: The CD plus CDX hatchback plus station wagon variants reverted with the black bezel projector-style headlamps.
CD: was the base model.
CDX: added 16 inch alloy wheels, cruise control, a trip computer plus six-stack CD player.
CDXi: versions added eight-way power-adjustable front seats, climate control air conditioner plus curtain airbags.
CDTi: diesel-powered variation of the CDX.
SRi: was the sport model of the AH series Astra, loaded with leather seats, climate control plus 17 inch alloy wheels.
SRi Turbo: was the turbocharged adaptation of the above mentioned.
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Keywords: Series Haynes Service Barina Haynes Owners Service Repair Manual covers the Holden Barina series SB 3 Door plus 5 Door hatchback Petrol motors covered: 1.2 (1196cc) litre “12NZ” “C12NZ” Single Over Head Camshaft 4 piston 1 point 4 (1389cc) litre “C14NZ” “C14SE” Single Over Head Camshaft 4 piston 1.6 (1598cc) litre “C16XE” DOHC 4 piston gearboxs described: F 10/4 ...
The Holden Commodore (VE) is an executive car that was produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 2006 to 2013. It was the first iteration of the fourth generation of this Australian-made model.Its range included the luxury variants, Holden Berlina (VE) and Holden Calais (VE); utility models were included as the Holden Ute (VE). As opposed to the VZ and all models previous which used ...
Hi I bought a Pajero LWB 2.8 Diesel (Imported) a couple of years ago to be able to pull a 1 ton boat on a 1.75 ton trailer! REG N998 OAE Reg docs say 1995 model.
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Commodore Lexcen VN to VS 1988 1997 Gregorys Service Repair Manual. Holden Commodore / Lexcen VN VP VR VS T4 Series Gregory Service and Repair Manual 1988-1997 NEW Other Holden Car Repair Manuals click here Other Commodore Repair Manuals click here Commodore Lexcen VN to VS 1988 – 1997 Gregorys Owners Service Repair Manual cover the following models: Commodore VN VP VR VS series 1988 ...
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Il papiro, fatto di materiale spesso simile alla carta che si ottiene tessendo insieme gli steli della pianta di papiro, poi battendolo con un attrezzo simile al martello, veniva utilizzato in Egitto per scrivere, forse già durante la Prima dinastia, anche se la prima prova proviene dai libri contabili del re Neferirkara Kakai della V dinastia egizia (circa 2400 a.C.).
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October 1st, 2012 at 7:55 pm; Curiously, regulation can drive progress – witness the amazing changes in automotive emissions over the past 40 years or the remarkable advances in airline safety.